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    Similar to the library approach of SEAL™, SMAL™ starts with a combinatorial chemical antigen library (CCAL) design based on the specific structural features of a target chemical molecule. CCAL typically consists of multiple chemical modifications of the target molecule so that different immunogenic and unique chemical groups are guaranteed to be exposed for generating antibodies. Thus produced CCAL is then going through the potent immunogen generation technology (VLP) developed at Abmart for high affinity and specific monoclonal antibody generation. SMAL™ has proven to be effective for antibody development against diverse chemicals, thus providing key building blocks (antibodies) for building immunoassay-based detection of important small molecules.